In Ethiopia

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If the job post asks you to send only cover letter and resume, just send the cover letter and resume - not all documents you have. Important Notes to Job Seekers: How to Get Interviews: Jobs by Category Jobs by Region. Featured Jobs in Ethiopia. Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations, but it was not until that Ethiopia was completely united and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Tewodros II.

Upon his ascent, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor. Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again. But Tewodros suffered several rebellions inside his empire. Northern Oromo militias, Tigrayan rebellion, and the constant incursion of Ottoman Empire and Egyptian forces near the Red Sea brought the weakening and the final downfall of Tewodros II.

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He killed himself in during his last battle with the British Expedition to Abyssinia. Kassai was subsequently declared Yohannes IV on 21 January Ethiopia in its roughly current form began under the reign of Menelik II , who was Emperor from until his death in From his base in the central province of Shewa , Menelik set out to annex territories to the south, east and west, [72] areas inhabited by the Oromo, Sidama , Gurage, Welayta , and other groups. Menelik was born from King Hailemelekot of Shewa and his mother Ejegayehu Lema Adeyamo who was a servant in the royal household.

During his reign, Menelik II made advances in road construction, electricity and education; the development of a central taxation system; and the foundation and building of the city of Addis Ababa—which became capital of Shewa Province in After he ascended to the throne in , it was renamed as Addis Ababa, the new capital of Abyssinia. Menelik had signed the Treaty of Wichale with Italy in May in which Italy would recognize Ethiopia's sovereignty so long as Italy could control an area north of Ethiopia part of modern Eritrea.

In return, Italy was to provide Menelik with weapons and support him as emperor. The Italians used the time between the signing of the treaty and its ratification by the Italian government to expand their territorial claims. This conflict erupted in the Battle of Adwa on 1 March in which Italy's colonial forces were defeated by the Ethiopians.

About a third of the population died in the Great Ethiopian Famine to Haile Selassie I was born to parents from three of Ethiopia's Afroasiatic-speaking populations: He came to power after Iyasu V was deposed, and undertook a nationwide modernization campaign from , when he was made a Ras and Regent Inderase for the Empress Regnant , Zewditu , and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu's death on 2 November , he succeeded her as emperor.

The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Ethiopian War , beginning when it was invaded by Fascist Italy in early October , and Italian occupation of the country — Haile Selassie fled into exile in Fairfield House, Bath and Mussolini was able to proclaim the Empire of Ethiopia and the assumption of the imperial title by the Italian king Vittorio Emanuele III , recognized by the countries belonging to the international organization of the League of Nations.

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In , the Italian massacre of Yekatit 12 , in which many Ethiopians were imprisoned and massacred, took place. An Italian guerrilla campaign continued until This was followed by British recognition of Ethiopia's full sovereignty , i. On 26 August , Haile Selassie issued a proclamation that removed Ethiopia's legal basis for slavery. In , Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea. He dissolved this in and illegally annexed Eritrea against the UN Federation Agreement, which resisted and finally won its war of independence.

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Opinion within Ethiopia turned against Haile Selassie I owing to the worldwide oil crisis of This oil crisis caused a sharp increase in gasoline prices starting on 13 February ; food shortages; uncertainty regarding the succession; border wars; and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.

Haile Selassie's reign came to an end on 12 September , when he was deposed by the Derg , a Soviet-backed Marxist—Leninist military dictatorship led by Mengistu Haile Mariam. The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a huge refugee problem. This included around 15, Cuban combat troops. Between —78, up to , were killed as a result of the Red Terror , [93] from forced deportations , or from the use of hunger as a weapon under Mengistu's rule. The —85 famine in Ethiopia affected around eight million people, resulting in one million dead.

Insurrections against Communist rule sprang up, particularly in the northern regions of Eritrea and Tigray. Concurrently, the Soviet Union began to retreat from building world communism under Mikhail Gorbachev 's glasnost and perestroika policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to Ethiopia from Socialist Bloc countries. This resulted in more economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of determined onslaughts by guerrilla forces in the north.

The collapse of Marxism—Leninism in general, and in Eastern Europe during the revolutions of , coincided with the Soviet Union stopping aid to Ethiopia altogether in The strategic outlook for Mengistu quickly deteriorated. Mengistu fled the country and was granted asylum in Zimbabwe , where he still resides. In , after a trial that lasted 12 years, Ethiopia's Federal High Court in Addis Ababa found Mengistu guilty of genocide in absentia. Mengistu and others who had fled the country were tried and sentenced in absentia. Numerous former officials received the death sentence and tens of others spent the next 20 years in jail, before being pardoned from life sentences.

In July , EPRDF convened a National Conference to establish the Transitional Government of Ethiopia composed of an member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution. Ethiopia's 3rd multiparty election on 15 May was highly disputed, with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter Center approved the pre-election conditions, it expressed its dissatisfaction with post-election events.

European Union election observers cited state support for the EPRDF campaign, as well as irregularities in ballot counting and results publishing. While most of the opposition representatives joined the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party who refused to take up their parliamentary seats were accused of inciting the post-election violence and were imprisoned. Amnesty International considered them " prisoners of conscience " and they were subsequently released.

A coalition of opposition parties and some individuals was established in to oust the regime of the EPRDF in legislative elections of Meles' party, which has been in power since , published its page manifesto in Addis Ababa on 10 October After it ensued, it claimed the election, amidst charges of fraud and intimidation. In mid, two consecutively missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years.

Full recovery from the drought's effects did not occur until , with long-term strategies by the national government in conjunction with development agencies believed to offer the most sustainable results. Meles died on 20 August in Brussels, where he was being treated for an unspecified illness. Protests broke out across the country on 5 August and dozens of protesters were subsequently shot and killed by police. The protesters demanded an end to human rights abuses, the release of political prisoners, a fairer redistribution of the wealth generated by over a decade of economic growth, and a return of Wolqayt District to the Amhara Region.

Up to , have been displaced by the Oromo-Somali clashes in On February 16, , the government of Ethiopia declared a six-month nationwide state of emergency following the resignation of Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn. His successor, Abiy Ahmed , made a historic visit to Eritrea in , ending the state of conflict between the countries. The politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic , wherein the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament.

On the basis of Article 78 of the Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature. According to the Democracy Index published by the United Kingdom-based Economist Intelligence Unit in late , Ethiopia is an "authoritarian regime", ranking as the th-most democratic out of countries. In July , during a trip that then US President Barack Obama took to Ethiopia, he highlighted the role of the country in the fight against Islamic terrorism. The election of Ethiopia's member constituent assembly was held in June This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections.

International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so. The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August The first President was Negasso Gidada.

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The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism , devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press , are circumscribed.

Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government. The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies. Meles' government was elected in in Ethiopia's first-ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.

The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress ONC. A member of the country's Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia. After the elections, Ethiopia lost its single remaining opposition MP; [] there are now no opposition MPs in the Ethiopian parliament.

Recent human rights violations include the killing of peaceful protestors by direct government gunfire in the Oromo and Amhara regions in They're protesting against land grabs, reparations, stolen elections, the rising cost of living, many things.


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Among the Omotic Karo-speaking and Hamer peoples in southern Ethiopia, adults and children with physical abnormalities are considered to be mingi , "ritually impure". The latter are believed to exert an evil influence upon others; disabled infants have traditionally been murdered without a proper burial. In , the Oakland Institute released a report accusing the Ethiopian government of forcing the relocation of "hundreds of thousands of indigenous people from their lands" in the Gambela Region [] The report describes the Ethiopian government's "plans to move over 1.

Before , Ethiopia was divided into thirteen provinces , many derived from historical regions. The nation now has a tiered governmental system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically based regional states, zones, districts woreda , and kebeles "neighbourhoods". The kililoch are subdivided into sixty-eight zones , and then further into woredas and several special woredas.

The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states, which can establish their own government and democracy as long as it is in line with the federal government's constitution. Each region has at its apex a regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions. Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia.

There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level woreda. It lies between the 3rd parallel north and the 15th parallel north and longitudes 33rd meridian east and 48th meridian east.

The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa , which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley , which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes , or semi-desert. The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns. Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts.

Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the gelada , the walia ibex and the Ethiopian wolf "Simien fox". The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, and this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.

The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands cover most of the country and have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator. It experiences a mild climate year round. With temperatures fairly uniform year round, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall: There are on average 7 hours of sunshine per day. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine.

Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate. In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier. Ethiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals. However, with last sightings at Finicha'a , this canid is thought to be potentially locally extinct. The Ethiopian wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.

Ethiopia is a global center of avian diversity. To date more than bird species have been recorded in Ethiopia, twenty of which are endemic to the country. A large number of these birds feed on butterflies, like the Bicyclus anynana. Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching, and other human factors.

When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gases. Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable to global extinction.

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Ethiopia is one of the eight fundamental and independent centers of origin for cultivated plants in the world. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat. Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management. This project is assisting more than 80 communities. In and , Ethiopia's growth performance and considerable development gains were challenged by high inflation and a difficult balance of payments situation.

In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems. However, with a focused investment in public infrastructure and industrial parks, Ethiopia's economy is addressing its structural problems to become a hub for light manufacturing in Africa. The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may lease land up to 99 years , and are unable to mortgage or sell.

Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user. Land distribution and administration is considered an area where corruption is institutionalized, and facilitation payments as well as bribes are often demanded when dealing with land-related issues. A lot of anger and distrust sometimes results in public protests. In addition, agricultural productivity remains low, and frequent droughts still beset the country, also leading to internal displacement.

Ethiopia has 14 major rivers, which flow from its highlands, including the Nile. The country has the largest water reserves in Africa. As of , hydroelectric plants represented around The remaining electrical power was generated from fossil fuels 8. As of , total electricity production was 9. In , Egypt and Sudan signed a bilateral treaty, the Nile Waters Agreement , which gave both countries exclusive maritime rights over the Nile waters. Ever since, Egypt under international law vetoed almost all projects in Ethiopia that sought to utilize the local Nile tributaries.

This had the effect of discouraging external financing of hydropower and irrigation projects in western Ethiopia, thereby impeding water resource-based economic development projects. However, Ethiopia is in the process of constructing a large 6, MW hydroelectric dam on the Blue Nile river. When completed, this Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is slated to be the largest hydroelectric power station on the continent. However, the service sector represents the largest portion of the GDP.

Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises, and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee , legumes , oilseeds , cereals , potatoes, sugarcane , and vegetables. Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities with the exception of Gold exports , and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner.

Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 56 years and for women 60 years. Ethiopia also has the 5th largest inventory of cattle. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.

Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. The unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep, and goats from Ethiopia sold to Somalia , Djibouti , and Kenya generates an estimated total value of between and million USD annually times more than the official figure. This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions, and promote regional integration.

Furthermore, the government of Ethiopia is purportedly unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues. With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its neighbors.

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Coffee remains its most important export product, and with new trademark deals around the world including recent deals with Starbucks the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee. The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions.

Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found by police to be gilded metal, costing the state around 17 million USD, according to the Science and Development Network website.

Subcommittee Hearing: Reviewing Current Developments in Ethiopia (EventID=108670)

In , the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam project was commenced. When completed, it will provide surplus energy in Ethiopia which will be available for export to neighboring countries. Both railways are either in trial service or still under construction as of August It is not clear, when this section will be built and opened. As the first part of a ten-year Road Sector Development Program, between and the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads.

Ethiopia had 58 airports as of [update] , [8] and 61 as of Ethiopian Airlines is the country's flag carrier , and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia. Ethiopia's population has grown from Currently, the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world.


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The population is forecast to grow to over million by , which would be an increase from estimates by a factor of about 2. The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. According to the Ethiopian national census of , the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at The Amhara represent Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Afroasiatic-speaking communities make up the majority of the population.

Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as the Habesha people. Alemayehu Ejigu, head of the Oromia Police Commission, told state television Monday that 23 people were killed in the attacks and that suspects were arrested. He described the attackers as organized criminals. Federal Police Commissioner Zeynu Jemal added that the attackers had been paid to destabilize the country and block current reforms. He said an additional people were arrested in Addis Ababa after the protests.

Witnesses described the attackers as young Oromos from neighboring areas and the victims as members of the small Dorze, Gamo and Wolaita ethnic groups. With details still scarce about the attacks and unverified photos of mutilated corpses being shared on social media, tempers were running high in Addis Ababa, where many resident feel under siege by the Oromos living in the countryside around the city.

As part of his political opening, Abiy, who hails from the Oromo ethnic group, invited many exiled opposition leaders to return to Ethiopia.


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